bald cypress development – two styles, two points in time
There are two basic styles of Bald cypress bonsai – pyramidal (formal/informal upright) and flat-top. Their development and the speed at which they develop could not be more different.
Bald Cypress Development – Two Styles, Two Points in Time
There are two basic styles for Bald cypress – what we call “pyramidal” style, which is just what it sounds like in its silhouette, and what we call “flat-top,” which is the mature stage of the species’ growth where the bulk of the foliage is found in the very apex of the tree but has spread out. The pyramidal style can be formal or informal upright. Flat-tops typically are informal upright in their trunk style, though there’s certainly nothing wrong with a formal specimen.
The other factor I apply when deciding on a style for a BC is the base to height ratio of what will be the finished tree. Take this specimen on the right, for example, which was collected in 2017. With a base of 6″ (that’s measured 6″ above the soil), and a trunk chop at 26″, we can figure on a finished height of about 40″. With a ratio of height to base as large as this, the flat-top in my opinion would not be believable. So when I collect trees with this sort of ratio, I’m automatically thinking pyramidal style.
It took a couple of years for this tree to get well-established, but once the strong growth kicked in I was able to being its development. This photo is from 2019.
The tree was purchased by a client in 2019, with the understanding that a lot of the development work lay ahead. For a tree this size, you can expect to spend about 10 years getting the styling and new apex in reasonable shape to make a showable bonsai. This photo is a good example of where you can be in five years.
I did another round of styling on the tree you see in the photo above, then potted it into this mica pot. The branch structure is in very good shape. The leader has been through multiple rounds of grow and chop, and is thick enough at the base to allow for a bonsai pot. More thickening is necessary – that’s obvious from the photo. But the completion of that part of the development process can be done with the tree in a training pot. All that’s required is to let the leader grow out without any pruning through the growing season. Then it gets cut back next year, another leader is allowed to grow, and the process is repeated. In the meantime, the branches get thicker and they grow out and get cut back.
As I said, developing a Bald cypress of this size in the pyramidal style is a 10-year project. We’re in year five. There’s no question that in five more, the tree will have reached a “finished” state.
Now on to the other style of BC bonsai, the flat-top. I posted a blog on this tree just over a month ago. It was collected a year ago, and given that it was reasonably suited to both bonsai styles I decided to go with the flat-top style. It’s certainly a quicker way to get to a showable tree.
Here’s the beginning. It doesn’t look like much, does it? But there’s always method in the madness.
Here we are five weeks later. Well, a lot has changed! I’m taking advantage of one of the most important characteristics of Bald cypresses – apical dominance! You see, when making a flat-top BC you want the apical dominance in order to move the development along as quickly as you can.
After all, the main thing about a flat-top BC is the FLAT TOP. That means growing the top quickly and vigorously. BC’s always comply. As you can see, in only five weeks I’m able to move into the second phase of development. Contrast this with the pyramidal style. The second phase doesn’t happen in year one. In fact, if you ask youself what is the second phase of training a pyramidal BC, you might have to scratch your head. It goes like this: branch growth and root system building, with a leader selected well into year one; pruning away competition for the leader in year one, wiring and training up the new leader; in year two, making the angled cut at the original trunk chop to begin the tapering transition process; wiring a branch set and managing energy between the leader, the lowest branches and those between the lowest branches and those nearer the apex. That’s phase two, and it “blends” or morphs into phase three. Phase three is chopping the leader and regrowing a new one, to create taper in the leader; continuing to manage branch energy downward; carving the angled cut if you haven’t already, so when the callus grows over it remains smooth. Phase three is a continuation of the one before, and continues for three years or more. At this point you’re getting closer to a realistic tree form.
Bear in mind that all this while you can literally create an entire flat-top Bald cypress bonsai. And it’s not because the flat-tops are typically of smaller trunk size. It’s because with the flat-top you only have to focus on and manage apical growth, of which you’ll have more than enough. Just look at this tree. I’m in year two with it. Even in a bonsai pot, the apex is growing strong enough to allow me to complete, or mostly complete, the design of the crown. When the year is over, all I’ll need to focus on is keeping the crown in check while I thicken and ramify the lower branches.
In a nutshell, these are the two styles of BC bonsai and timeframes for their development. I love both styles, so I can’t say I have a preference. I just know which one I can “complete” faster.
Let me know what you think.